A Comprehensive Guide to Federal Firearms Regulations

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Often in our handguns class, I get questions about the current status of federal firearms laws. Is there a mandatory 20-year prison term for use of a firearm in a crime? Can illegal aliens or non-immigrant aliens possess a firearm? Can an individual who does not possess a federal firearms license legally sell a firearm to a resident of another state without first transferring the firearm to a dealer in the purchaser’s state? Are antique firearms and replicas exempt from federal firearms laws? May firearms be mailed or shipped interstate from one non-FFL to another non-FFL? May a person transport a firearm from any place where he may lawfully possess and transport such firearm to any other place where he may lawfully possess and transport such firearm; must the firearm be unloaded and in the vehicle’s trunk? Is it true that the standard federal penalty for violating 18 U.S. Code § 924 (c) for a silencer is not less than 30 years? What are the Commerce Clause, the Hobbs Act, a Straw Purchase, the Gun-Free School Zones Act, and the Brady Act?

Well, there are many firearms situations, considerations, and federal laws, so I am writing this article as a summary of current federal restrictions on the purchase, sale, possession, and transportation of firearms and ammunition. I researched several sources and acquired legal information from 2023 and earlier, from the U.S. Department of Justice, the U.S. Attorney’s Office, the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the Federal Register, and the National Rifle Association’s Institute for Legislative Action.

Caution: Firearm laws are subject to frequent change, court interpretation, and vary by state. This summary is not intended as legal advice nor opinion, or restatement of law. It is for general information and educational purposes only about federal firearm laws. This summary does NOT include state or local laws, ordinances or regulations. For any particular situation, a licensed local, state, or jurisdictional attorney must be consulted for a current and accurate interpretation.

Note: In addition to federal gun laws imposed by the National Firearms Act (1934), Gun Control Act (1968), Firearms Owner`s Protection Act (1986), Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (1993), the 1994 Omnibus Crime Control Act and other laws, most states and some local jurisdictions have imposed their own firearms restrictions which vary considerably.

Mandatory Prison Sentence

Under federal law, the use of a firearm in a violent or drug-trafficking crime is punishable by a mandatory prison sentence of up to 20 years. A second conviction, if the firearm is a machine gun or is equipped with a silencer, brings life imprisonment without release. Violating firearms laws should lead to very real punishment for violent criminals, but the laws first must be enforced.

Definition of a Firearm

18 United States Code § 921(a)(3) for § 922 and § 924 violations defines a “firearm” as:

  • A. any weapon (including a starter gun) which will or is designed to or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosive;
  • B. the frame or receiver of any such weapon;
  • C. any firearm muffler or firearm silencer; or 
  • D. any destructive device. Such term does not include an antique firearm. This broad definition encompasses not only operable firearms but those that have been disassembled or dismantled or altered in such a way that they are inoperable at the time of the offense. 

This definition has included a firearm with the hammer filed down because it could be “readily converted” to expel a projectile, for example in United States v. Ruiz, 986 F.2d 905 (5th Cir. 1993). This same justification applies for including starter guns within the definition of a firearm. Recognize that “Firearm” is defined differently for violations of 26 U.S.C. § 5861 for possession of prohibited firearms

Ineligible Persons

The following classes of people are ineligible to possess, receive, ship, or transport firearms or ammunition:

  • Those convicted of crimes punishable by imprisonment for over one year, except state misdemeanors punishable by two years or less.
  • Fugitives from justice.
  • Unlawful users of certain depressant, narcotic, or stimulant drugs.
  • Those adjudicated as mental defectives or incompetents or those committed to any mental institution.
  • Illegal aliens.
  • Citizens who have renounced their citizenship.
  • Those persons dishonorably discharged from the Armed Forces.
  • Persons less than 18 years of age for the purchase of a shotgun or rifle.
  • Persons less than 21 years of age for the purchase of a firearm that is other than a shotgun or rifle.
  • Persons subject to a court order that restrains such persons from harassing, stalking, or threatening an intimate partner.
  • Persons convicted in any court of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence.

Persons under indictment for a crime punishable by imprisonment for more than one year are ineligible to receive, transport, or ship any firearm or ammunition. Under limited conditions, relief from disability may be obtained from the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, or through a pardon, expungement, restoration of rights, or setting aside of a conviction.

Possession of Firearms by Prohibited Person 

Possession of a firearm by a “prohibited person” is illegal. Under 18 U.S.C. § 922 (g), there are NINE CATEGORIES of prohibited persons which need to be enforced. Generally, they include: 

  1. felons; 
  2. fugitives;
  3. unlawful users of or addicts to a controlled substance; 
  4. persons who have been adjudicated as mentally “defective” or who have been involuntarily committed to a mental institution; 
  5. illegal aliens and non-immigrant aliens;
  6. persons dishonorably discharged from the armed forces; 
  7. persons who have renounced their U.S. citizenship; 
  8. persons who are the subject of a qualifying domestic protection order; and 
  9. persons convicted of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence. 

A prohibited person cannot possess, ship, transport or receive a firearm or ammunition that has traveled in interstate commerce.

Acquiring Firearms

The following restrictions apply to firearms acquired through purchase, trade, receipt of gifts, or by other means.

A. From Dealers

Provided that federal law and the laws of both the dealer`s and purchaser`s states and localities are complied with:

  • An individual 21 years of age or older may acquire a handgun from a dealer federally licensed to sell firearms in the individual`s state of residence
  • An individual 18 years of age or older may purchase a rifle or shotgun from a federally licensed dealer in any state

It shall be unlawful for any licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer to sell, deliver, or transfer a firearm unless the federal firearms licensee receives notice of approval from a prescribed source approving the transfer, per 18 U.S.C. § 922.

Federal Form 4473

Sale of a firearm by a federally licensed dealer must be documented by a Federal Form 4473, which identifies and includes other information about the purchaser, and records the make, model, and serial number of the firearm. Sales to an individual of multiple handguns within a five-day period require dealer notification to the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (BATFE.) Violations of dealer record keeping requirements are punishable by a penalty of up to $1000. and one year’s imprisonment.

B. Sales Between Individuals

An individual who does NOT possess a federal firearms license may NOT sell a firearm to a resident of another state without first transferring the firearm to a dealer in the purchaser’s state. Firearms received by bequest or intestate succession are exempt from those sections of the law which forbid the transfer, sale, delivery or transportation of firearms into a state other than the transferor`s state of residence.

Temporary use of Another`s Firearm

Provided that all other laws are complied with, an individual may temporarily borrow or rent a firearm for lawful sporting purposes throughout the United States.

Antiques

Antique firearms and replicas are exempted from the above-mentioned restrictions. Antique firearms are defined as: 

  • any firearm (including any firearm with a matchlock, flintlock, percussion cap, or similar type of ignition system) manufactured in or before 1898, and 
  • any replica of a firearm as designed above if the replica is not designed or redesigned for using rimfire or conventional centerfire ammunition, or 
  • uses fixed ammunition, which is no longer manufactured in the United States and which is not readily available in the ordinary channels or commercial trade, 
  • any muzzle loading rifle, muzzle loading shotgun, or muzzle loading pistol, which is designed to use black powder, or a black powder substitute, and which cannot use fixed ammunition. 

(Note: Antiques exemptions and definitions vary considerably by various state laws.)

Shipping Firearms

Firearms may NOT be mailed or shipped interstate from one non-FFL to another non-FFL. Personally owned rifles and shotguns may be mailed or shipped to an FFL in any state for any lawful purpose, including sale, repair, or customizing. An FFL may ship a firearm or replacement firearm of the same kind and type to a person from whom it was received. Under U.S. Postal regulations, handguns may be sent via the Postal Service only from one FFL to another FFL, or between authorized government officials.

It is my layman’s understanding that a person may ship a rifle or shotgun to himself, in care of a person who lives in another state, only for purposes of hunting.

Although the information I found was inconclusive and it should be investigated for yourself, I discovered that firearms or ammunition delivered to a common carrier for shipment must be accompanied by a written notice to the carrier of the contents of the shipment.

Transporting Firearms During Travel

A provision of federal law serves as a defense to state or local laws which would prohibit the passage of persons with firearms in interstate travel. Notwithstanding any state or local law, a person shall be entitled to transport a firearm from any place where he may lawfully possess and transport such firearm to any other place where he may lawfully possess and transport such firearm if the firearm is unloaded and in the trunk. 

In vehicles without a trunk, the unloaded firearm shall be in a locked container other than the glove compartment or console.

Federal law prohibits the carrying of any firearm, concealed or unconcealed, on or about the person or in carry-on baggage while aboard an aircraft. The Transportation Security Administration(TSA) has established certain requirements for transporting firearms and ammunition, although this changes and is subject to interpretation. So verify this for yourself and for your jurisdiction. Firearms must be carried in a locked hard sided case. Ammunition must be declared and can be transported in checked baggage or in the same container as the firearm as long the firearm is unloaded.

Any passenger who owns or legally possesses a firearm being transported aboard any common or contract carrier for movement with the passenger in interstate or foreign commerce must deliver the unloaded firearm into custody of the pilot, captain, conductor, or operator of such common or contract carrier for the duration of the trip.

Ammunition

As with firearms, shipments of ammunition must be accompanied by a written notice of the shipment`s contents. It is unlawful for any licensed importer, dealer, manufacturer or collector to transfer shotgun or rifle ammunition to anyone under the age of 18, or any handgun ammunition to anyone under the age of 21.

It is illegal to manufacture or sell armor-piercing handgun ammunition.

Armor-piercing handgun ammunition is federally banned for civilian use or ownership in the U.S. Per 18 United States Code, § 921(a)(17)(B). The term “armor piercing ammunition” means:

  • A projectile or projectile core which may be used in a handgun and which is constructed entirely (excluding the presence of traces of other substances) from one or a combination of tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass, bronze, beryllium copper or depleted uranium
  • A full-jacketed projectile larger than .22 caliber designed and intended for use in a handgun and whose jacket has a weight of more than 25 percent of the total weight of the projectile

Steel core ammo is one type of armor piercing ammunition which, when fired from a handgun, can regularly penetrate an NIJ Level IIIA police duty vest because the harder steel doesn’t deform on contact with the high-tensile Kevlar.

Dealers

Persons who engage in the business of buying or selling firearms must be licensed by the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE) of the U.S. Department of Justice. A special class of “licensed collectors” provides for the purchase and sale of firearms designated by the BATFE as “curios and relics.” Class III dealers may sell fully-automatic firearms manufactured prior to May 19, 1986, and other federally registered firearms and devices restricted under Title II of the Gun Control Act, to individuals who obtain approval from the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury after payment of a tax and clearance following a criminal background check.

Title I and II Firearms

A Title I firearm consists of the standard firearms that you can buy in almost any gun store. On the other hand, Title II describes firearms and devices that you must register with the BATFE before you can legally own. Violations of restrictions on Title II firearms and devices are punishable by a penalty of up to $10,000 and 10 years imprisonment.

Unlawful user of or addict to a controlled substance

Case law and 18 U.S.C. § 922 (g) (3) do not provide clear guidance on who is considered to be an unlawful user of or addict to a controlled substance. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations require that the use must have occurred “recently enough to indicate that the individual is actively engaged in such conduct.” 27 C.F.R. pt 178.11. 5. This statute has survived constitutional void for vagueness challenges. Courts now examine the “pattern and recency” of the defendant’s drug use in determining if there is a temporal nexus between the possession of the firearm and drug use. 

Obviously, the easiest method of demonstrating drug use is to question the defendant regarding his or her drug use habits.” Use” also may be demonstrated through drug tests and arrest records. If a defendant is found with a small quantity of drugs and a gun, good police work is essential in determining the most appropriate charge. If the defendant says that drugs are only for personal use, he or she may be charged under § 922(g)(3). If the defendant is a distributor, then § 924 (c) may apply. 

Domestic Violence Prohibitions

Congress passed the domestic violence-related firearm prohibitions (18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(8) and § (g)(9)) out of concern for the number of domestic violence assaults that can and do escalate into firearm homicides and out of a hope that keeping domestic violence perpetrators from possessing guns would save the lives of victims of domestic violence. The U.S. Attorney’s Office prosecutes domestic violence-based federal gun violations, including violations of 18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(8) – possession of a firearm by a person under a qualifying protection order, and 18 U.S.C. § 922 (g)(9) – possession of a firearm by a person convicted of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence. 

A 2023 First Circuit Court held in United States v. Minor, 63 F.4th 112, 118 n.4 (1st Cir. 2023) (en banc) that a conviction under § 922(g)(9) requires the government to prove that, (i) the defendant had been previously convicted of an offense that “is a misdemeanor under Federal, State, or Tribal law”; (ii) that his prior conviction required proof beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant “use[d] or attempted [to] use . . . physical force”; and (iii) the victim of that offense was, at the time of the offense, in one of the statutorily defined domestic relationships with the defendant. 

Questions regarding the applicability of these provisions should be referred to an Assistant United States Attorney. 

Penalties for Firearm Possession by A Prohibited Person 

Absent sentencing enhancements for armed career criminals, 18 U.S.C. § 924(a)(2) provides that the maximum penalty for most prohibited persons in possession of a firearm is 10 years and $250,000. The outcome in most cases will be determined by the sentencing guidelines. A prohibited person who is found in possession of one gun but who has no prior record would likely receive about 15-21 months. A prohibited person with a substantial record that includes one conviction for a crime of violence or drug trafficking is eligible for a sentence of approximately 70-87 months.

Armed career criminals receive enhanced penalties in the federal system. An armed career criminal is a person who has three or more convictions for a serious drug offense or a felony crime of violence, which includes crimes that “have, as an element, the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against the person of another.” A defendant who falls into this category faces a mandatory minimum of 15 years imprisonment under 18 U.S.C. § 924(e). 

The Commerce Clause and a Prohibited Person

In order to establish federal jurisdiction in 18 U.S.C. § 922 cases, the gun involved must have traveled in interstate or foreign commerce. For firearms cases the prosecutor needs to show only that the firearm or ammunition crossed a state line at some point in its history. For example, if the firearm was manufactured in Tennessee and is recovered in Florida, the interstate nexus requirement has been satisfied. If the firearm was made in Florida and recovered in Tennessee, but the prosecutor can demonstrate that it was used to commit a crime in New York 10 years ago, this too will suffice. The best way to establish that the gun has traveled in interstate commerce is to contact the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE), which can trace crime guns to determine the location of manufacture and/or subsequent sale. 

Use of a Firearm in Drug Trafficking or Violent Crimes 

The prosecution of defendants who use a firearm in connection with a crime of violence or with a drug trafficking crime is a top priority. A person who “uses or carries” a firearm during or in relation to, or possesses a firearm “in furtherance of,” drug trafficking or a crime of violence that can be prosecuted in federal court may receive enhanced penalties under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c). Most of the cases arising out of this statute have centered on the definitions of “use,” carry,” and “in furtherance of.” In an unpublished First Circuit opinion (United States v. Dolliver, July 2007), the Court found that bartering drugs for firearms was sufficient to prove a violation of §924(c)(1)(A)(i). 

Meaning of “Use” under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c) 

Courts have determined that “use” of a firearm requires something more than mere possession; it requires active employment of the weapon. Bailey v. United States, 516 U.S. 137, 149 (1995) defines active employment to include: “brandishing, displaying, battering, striking with, and most obviously, firing or attempting to fire a firearm.” The Bailey court also notes that “use” can mean “to convert to one’s service,” “employ,” “avail oneself of,” and to make “reference to” if referring to the firearm is calculated to make the transaction easier. 

For example, a drug dealer who keeps a firearm in the closet during a drug transaction cannot be said to have “used” the firearm, unless he makes reference to the weapon during the transaction. However, this same section also prohibits possession of a firearm “in furtherance of ” drug trafficking. Under the “fortress theory,” if the defendant uses a firearm to protect the house in which drugs or the proceeds of drugs are kept, he could be guilty of possession in furtherance of drug trafficking.

Meaning of “Carry” under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c) 

The federal circuit courts have varying definitions of “carry.” All circuits agree that carrying requires knowing possession and transportation of the firearm. United States v. Mitchell, 104 F.3d 494, 653 (4th Cir. 1997). However, the First, Second, Sixth and Ninth circuits also require that the firearm be readily accessible. See United States v. Ramirez-Ferrer, 82 F.3d 1149, 1153-4 (1st Cir. 1996); United States v. Cruz-Rojas, 101 F.3d 283 (2d Cir. 1996); United States v. Riascos-Suarez, 73 F.3d 616, 623 (6th Cir. 1996); United States v. Hernandez, 80 F.3d 1253, 1257-8 (9th Cir. 1996). In a jurisdiction that requires that the firearm be accessible, transporting a gun in the trunk of a car will NOT qualify as carrying because the defendant does not have easy access to the weapon. 

Meaning of “in furtherance of” under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c) 

One of the principal cases in determining the definition and scope of “in furtherance of” is United States v. Ceballos-Torres, 218 F.3d 409 (5th Cir. 2002). Possession of a firearm is “in furtherance of” a drug trafficking crime “when it furthers, advances, or helps forward that offense.”  

There are five proofs for “in furtherance of” drug crimes;

  1. an accessible gun provides defense against anyone who may attempt to rob the trafficker of his drugs or drug profits;
  2. possession of a gun, and letting everyone know that you are armed, lessens the chance that a robbery will even be attempted;
  3. having a gun accessible during a transaction provides protection in case a drug deal in the apartment turns sour; 
  4. the visible presence of a gun during the transaction may prevent the deal from turning sour in the first place; and/or 
  5. having a gun may allow the drug trafficker to defend ‘turf,’ areas of the street from which lower level dealers operate for the trafficker.

18 U.S.C. § 924 (c) Does Not Require The Gun to Have Traveled in Interstate Commerce

Because the underlying offense (drug trafficking or a crime of violence over which there is federal jurisdiction) is prosecutable in federal court, there is no interstate nexus requirement for the gun itself. 

The Penalties for a Violation of 18 U.S.C. § 924(c) 

Penalties under this section vary depending on the type of firearm, how the firearm was used and whether the offense is the defendant’s first violation. All sentences under this section must be served consecutively to any other sentence, and offenders are not eligible for probation. Under federal law, the second conviction does not have to be the result of a separate incident. 

OFFENSE PENALTY

  • Standard Case Not less than 5 years
  • Brandishing the Firearm Not less than 7 years
  • Discharging the Firearm Not less than 10 years
  • Short-Barreled Rifle or Shotgun Not less than 10 years
  • Machine Gun, Destructive Device or Silencer Not less than 30 years
  • Second or Subsequent Conviction Not less than 25 year
  • Second or Subsequent Conviction & the gun is a 
  • Machine Gun, Destructive Device or SilencerLIFE

The Brady Act

The Brady Act obligates law enforcement officials to conduct background checks before someone can purchase a handgun from a gun dealer. Under the Brady Act, it is unlawful for any licensed dealer to sell, deliver or transfer a handgun to an individual who is not licensed unless there is compliance with the Brady Act waiting period. Violation of this statute carries a penalty of not more than one year imprisonment, as well as a $1,000 fine. See 18 U.S.C. § 922(s)(1) and § 924(a)(5). 

Also, any person who makes a false statement to a licensed dealer in connection with the acquisition of a firearm shall be punished by imprisonment for no more than ten years. See 18 U.S.C. § 922(a) (6) and § 924(a)(2). 

A false statement can include: name, age, address, date of birth, identification number, and status as convicted felon, fugitive, unlawful user of or addict to controlled substance, prior commitment to a mental institution, illegal alien, dishonorable discharge from the military, status as U.S. citizen who has renounced citizenship, being subject to certain protection orders and having been convicted of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence. False statements can also include the representation that the purchaser is the real intended owner of the firearm when the purchaser is actually making a “straw” purchase for someone else. 

Although this is a crime separate and apart from the Brady Act, every time a Brady background check establishes that a handgun should not be sold to the prospective purchaser, the prospective purchaser has falsified the form and, accordingly, the false statement statute has been violated. 

STRAW PURCHASE, 18 U.S.C. § 932

It is against federal law for any person to knowingly purchase a firearm on behalf of any other person, knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that such other person— meets the criteria of 1 or more paragraphs of section 922(d), intends to use, carry, possess, or sell or otherwise dispose of the firearm in furtherance of a felony, a Federal crime of terrorism, or a drug trafficking crime, or intends to sell or otherwise dispose of the firearm to a person described in paragraph (1) or (2). 

Any person who violates section 932 shall be imprisoned for not more than 15 years, or both. If a violation of subsection (b) is committed knowing or with reasonable cause to believe that any firearm involved will be used to commit a felony, a Federal crime of terrorism, or a drug trafficking crime, the person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 25 years.

Commercial Robberies – Hobbs Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1951 

It is against federal law to interfere with interstate commerce by means of extortion or robbery. The Hobbs Act, 18 U.S.C. §1951, is a traditional tool in combating organized crime. However, prosecution under the Hobbs Act is also available where the defendant interferes with commerce by means of a robbery. If a person robs a business that is engaged in interstate commerce, then it is possible to charge that individual with a violation of the Hobbs Act. Of course, if the robber in any particular situation carries or uses a firearm in the commission of the offense, there are the traditional firearms statutes which can be used to prosecute the violator federally. To the extent permissible, most individuals are vigorously prosecuted if a firearm is used in the commission of a robbery. 

Gun-Free School Zones Act: Guns In School, 18 U.S.C. § 922(q)(2)(A) 

The reduction of gun violence and gun possession in schools is also a priority for prosecution. So, any individual who knowingly possesses a firearm at a place that the individual knows, or has reasonable cause to believe, is a school zone (on school grounds or public property within 1,000 feet of school grounds) violates 18 U.S. C. § 922(q)(2)(A) and faces a maximum of five years imprisonment.  

The Gun-Free School Zones Act (GFSZA) is an act of the federal government prohibiting any unauthorized individual from knowingly possessing a loaded or unsecured firearm at a place that the individual knows, or has reasonable cause to believe, is a school zone as defined by 18 U.S.C. § 921 (a)(26). The law applies to public, private, and parochial elementary schools and high schools, and to non-private property within 1,000 feet of them. It provides that the states and their political subdivisions may issue licenses and decide for exemptions of the licensed individuals from the prohibition.

Penalty

18 U.S.C. § 924 (a)(4) establishes the penalty for violating GFSZA:

  • Whoever violates the Act shall be fined not more than $5,000, 
  • imprisoned for not more than 5 years,
  • or both. 

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the term of imprisonment imposed under this paragraph shall not run concurrently with any other term of imprisonment imposed under any other provision of law.

A conviction under the GFSZA will cause an individual to become a “prohibited person” under the Gun Control Act of 1968. It is unlawful for a “prohibited person” to own, purchase, or possess “firearms” as defined by US federal law. 

Conclusions

There are a lot of questions about the current status of federal firearms laws. Firearm laws, in general, are subject to frequent change, court interpretation, and vary by state. So it is important for your particular situation, that you investigate and seek a qualified legal source to help you interpret the laws for your jurisdiction.

Under federal law, the use of a firearm in a violent or drug-trafficking crime is punishable by a mandatory prison sentence of up to 20 years. There are nine classes of people who are prohibited and ineligible to possess, receive, ship, or transport firearms or ammunition. Know the restrictions that apply to firearms acquired through purchase, trade, receipt of gifts, or by other means, from dealers and between individuals. Also, know the purpose and use of Form 4473 when purchasing firearms from a dealer. Understand the shipping of firearms and transporting them when traveling. Recognize that armor-piercing ammo is prevented for civilian use and what the Commerce Clause is. Know what the federal definition of “carry” is and how it applies to you. And know the penalties for violations of 18 U.S.C.; about Straw Purchase of a firearm; the Hobbs Act; and the Gun-Free School Zones Act.

Success and Be Safe and Legal!

Sources:

  1. https://www.nraila.org/articles/20040324/citizen-s-guide-to-federal-firearms-law
  2. https://www.justice.gov/d9/2023-Summary_of_federal_firearms_laws_-october_2023.pdf
  3. https://www.justice.gov/usdoj– Annual Report
  4. https://www.atf.gov/firearms
  5. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2023/07/06/2023

Photo credit: PublicDomainPictures.net.

Note: This personal opinion article is meant for general information & educational purposes only and the author strongly recommends that you seek counsel from an attorney for legal advice and a certified weapons trainer for proper guidance about the legal aspects of possessing, shooting & using your firearms, self-defense and concealed carry. It is not meant to be legal opinions nor legal advice. It should not be relied upon as accurate for all shooters & the author assumes no responsibility for anyone’s use of the information and shall not be liable for any improper or incorrect use of the information or any damages or injuries incurred whatsoever.   

© 2024 Col Benjamin Findley. All Rights Reserved. This article may not be reprinted or reproduced in whole or in part by mechanical means, photocopying, electronic reproduction, scanning, or any other means without prior written permission. For copyright information, contact Col Ben Findley at [email protected].

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